Rice is a grain that, just like wheat, is a member of the grass family. The stalks grow anywhere from 60 to 180 cm (2 to 6 feet) tall, and bloom with flowers that produce the grain as its seed.
In Europe, it is grown in Northern Italy, and in some parts of Spain. It is, of course, also grown throughout Asia.
Contrary to popular belief, rice doesn’t grow only in rice paddies — fields flooded with water. Some varieties of rice also grow on hills.
For the most part, rice is described based on the size of its grain, and the degree of processing it has had.
See also: Grains
- 1 Cooking Tips
- 2 How to cook rice
- 3 Cooking rice in a pressure cooker
- 4 Miscellaneous rice cooking tips
- 5 Substitutes
- 6 Nutrition
- 7 Equivalents
- 8 Storage Hints
- 9 Nutrition Notes
- 10 History Notes
- 11 Literature & Lore
- 12 Language Notes
- 13 Types of rice
Whenever a recipe or someone refers to “rice”, unless they specify a type, what is meant is white rice.
The answer to the question of “how much rice to cook” starts with the debate about what constitutes a serving size. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans people are really skimpy in their allowance. Weight Watchers® is more generous. Still, both probably fall short of what constitutes a serving in real life in people’s minds. See the Equivalents section below for the guidelines.
See Equivalents section below for how much white rice to cook.
See also the entry on Brown Rice for how much brown rice to cook.
How to cook rice
Here are two standard methods for cooking rice:
Cooking rice in pot by boiling
Per 1 cup ( 8 oz / 200 g) of uncooked rice, bring to a boil in a large saucepan 2 cups (16 oz / 500 ml) of water and 1 teaspoon of salt. Don’t dump the rice in all at once; slowly pour it in (don’t stir while pouring.) Then stir lightly, then cover the pot, reduce heat to a simmer and cook for 15 minutes
Cooking rice in pot by sautéing before boiling
Heat 1 tablespoon of fat (such as oil or butter) in a large saucepan over medium-low heat. Pour in 1 cup (8 oz / 200 g) of uncooked rice, stir around to coat, and cook until rice turns a bit transparent, about 5 minutes. (Optional: for a nuttier tasting rice, brown the kernels a bit by cooking them a bit longer until they just start to brown.) Slowly pour in 2 cups (16 oz / 500 ml) of already boiling water from the kettle, stir in 1 teaspoon of salt if desired, cover, and then cook for 15 minutes.
For either pot method
- if all the water has gone but the rice is not yet tender, add a few tablespoons of boiling water, cover and cook a bit more;
- if water has remained but the rice is cooked, remove cover and cook a minute or two uncovered to allow water to evaporate until the water is gone.
Cooking rice in a pressure cooker
Laura Pazzaglia, author of Hip Pressure Cooking (affiliate link), is understandably a big advocate for cooking rice in a pressure cooker. She maintains you can get worry free rice faster, and using less energy. Though a pressure cooker is fast, she cautions not to try to rush it any further with a quick release of pressure at the end. She says the slower, natural release is vital for proper cooking of the rice.
“Opening the pressure cooker with the 10-Minute Natural Release is an essential part of most grain recipes because during this release, the steam in the cooker continues to cook the grains. Even after the pressure has gone down and the cooker is closed, the steam is continuing to cook the grains. If the pressure cooker is opened right after pressure cooking, the grains will be underdone. But letting the steam do its work without any additional heat, which might cause scorching or overcooking, ensures perfectly steamed, piping hot grains. Stovetop cookers: This applies to you, too; leave the cooker closed until the full 10 minutes have elapsed even if the signal shows that all of the pressure has gone down.” Pazzaglia, Laura. Hip Pressure Cooking. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. 2014. Page 139.
For all of the following directions, put rice and other ingredients straight into pressure cooker base. Ingredients may be doubled or tripled provided that, for safety, you do not exceed half the volume capacity of your pressure cooker.
White rice in pressure cooker (unsoaked)
1 cup (8 oz / 200 g) uncooked, unsoaked white rice, 1 ½ cups (12 oz / 325 ml) water, ¼ teaspoon salt, ½ teaspoon oil.
Bring pressure cooker to high pressure. Cook on high for 4 minutes whether stovetop or electric machine. Natural release. Fluff rice with a fork.
White rice in pressure cooker (soaked)
Take rice, rinse in a strainer, set strainer with rice in a large bowl of water and let soak for 10 to 15 minutes. Then lift strainer to drain rice, and proceed with the following directions:
1 cup (8 oz / 200 g) uncooked, soaked white rice, 1 cup (8 oz / 250 ml) water, ¼ teaspoon salt.
Bring pressure cooker to high pressure. Cook on high for 3 minutes whether stovetop or electric machine. Natural release. Fluff rice with a fork.
Brown rice in pressure cooker (unsoaked)
1 cup (8 oz / 200 g) uncooked, unsoaked brown rice, 1 ¼ cups (10 oz / 300 ml) water, ¼ teaspoon salt, ½ teaspoon oil.
Bring pressure cooker to high pressure. Cook on high for 18 minutes stovetop pressure cooker; 20 minutes if electric or non-standard stovetop one. Natural release. Fluff rice with a fork.
Miscellaneous rice cooking tips
- Don’t stir rice while it is cooking, as stirring it will make it sticky (Risotto rice is the exception: you want the stickiness to develop);
- The wider the mouth on your pot, the better your rice will cook;
- If you have storage space for a rice steamer, they are inexpensive, and for some people can take some stress out of cooking rice;
- When reheating leftover rice in a microwave, add 1 teaspoon of water per cup (150 g / 4 oz) of cooked, leftover rice. Put covered in microwave and zap for 3–4 minutes, or until uniformly piping hot;
- To make a soup thicker, throw in a few handfuls of leftover cooked rice towards the end.
Wholegrain and brown rice are just two different names for the same grain of rice.
When the rice grain is husked, the rice is brown in colour. This is what is known as wholegrain or brown rice. Further refining to make the white rice removes the brown exterior.
Brown rices are more nutritious than white because the brown layer retains some of the nutrients found in the husk.
Rice has absolutely no gluten.
Rice measurements, equivalents and yields are very imprecise, being dependent on so many factors including even — literally — the weather. It just depends essentially if you want to err on the side of calorie-control, or generosity.
1 cup uncooked rice = (8 oz / 200 g)
How much uncooked rice equals how much cooked rice
Just memorize that brown rice is times two, white rice is times three.
- Brown rice essentially doubles in both volume and weight after cooking. 1 cup of brown rice will yield 2 cups; 1 kg of brown rice will yield 2 kg.
- White rice essentially triples in both volume and weight after cooking. 1 cup of white rice will yield 3 cups; 1 kg of white rice will yield 3 kg.
How much white rice to cook for a single person
There are two different serving-size suggestions from the dietary professionals, one smaller and one a bit larger.
Smaller serving of rice
To end up with a single serving of 75 g (½ cup / 2 oz in weight) of cooked white long-grain rice: start with 25 g (2.5 tablespoons / 1 oz ) of uncooked white long-grain rice.
Larger serving of rice
To end up with a single serving of 150 g (1 cup / 4 oz in weight) of cooked white long-grain rice: start with 50 g (⅓ cup / 2 oz ) of uncooked white long-grain rice.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015 – 2020 edition, Appendix 3) suggests the first, smaller amount. The larger amount is offered up by Weight Watchers® and other dietary sources as of 2015, and while probably closer to the minimum that people are going to actually have, will likely still seem skimpy to many people.
How much white rice to cook for a crowd
The following is based on the serving amount of 150 g (1 cup / 4 oz ) for long-grain white rice. Even so, it does not allow for generous servings, second-helpings, or left-overs. To allow for that, or when cooking for larger numbers, it is probably advisable to plan for a few extra servings.
- 1 kilo rice uncooked = 2.2 pounds / 5 cups uncooked = 3 kg ( 25 cups / 6.5 lbs) cooked (Will serve 25 people).
- 100 g rice uncooked = ½ cup (3.5 oz in weight) uncooked = 300 g ( 2 ½ cups / 10.5 oz in weight) cooked  (Will serve 2 people)
- 1 cup rice uncooked = 7 oz / 200 g = 600 g ( 5 cups / 21 oz in weight) cooked  (Will serve 5 people).
- 1 pound of rice = 2 ¼ to 2 ½ cups uncooked = 11 cups cooked (Will serve 11 people).
See also the entry on Brown Rice for how much brown rice to cook.
Rice equivalency notes
- The weights of uncooked compared to weights of cooked are of course more accurate than when volume-style measurements get involved;
- Cup volumes of cooked and uncooked will vary wildly depending on the type of rice (e.g. risotto rice), how forcefully it was packed down in the cup, the humidity of the given day even, etc. And weight / volume equivalencies of uncooked rice will also vary wildly as well, depending on the type of rice, whether it is short-grain or long-grain, brown or white, etc. Thus, the equivalencies below won’t always jive with each other, especially given whether rounding for kitchen usability for a particular instance was done up, or down. But sacrificing usability for extreme mathematical precision is impractical in a real-world kitchen;
- For kitchen purposes, rounding ½ cup of uncooked rice to 4 oz / 120 g in weight (1 cup uncooked to 8 oz / 250 g in weight) is usually fine. Feel free to round it down to ⅓ cup / 2 oz uncooked if you want less food on the plate!
Store dried, uncooked rice in a sealed container in a dry, cool place. With the exception of brown rice, rice will keep indefinitely.
Refrigerate leftover cooked rice in a sealed container within an hour of cooking; do not let stand out longer — there are documented instances of food poisoning having occurred with cooked rice left out of the fridge (see Nutrition Notes below.) Use with 3 to 5 days.
You can freeze cooked rice for up to a year. Freeze it in meal size portions, rather than in one huge lump, so that you can haul it out of the freezer for adding to soups or casseroles, or even just to serve on the side.
It is a myth that leftover cooked rice is inherently dangerous to eat. However, it is true that it needs to be promptly refrigerated so that it does not become so:
“Rice and other grains can carry spores of the bacterium Bacillus cereus. Like other spores, Bacillus spores will survive the rice-cooking process. If the cooked rice is not properly cooled, then the Bacillus spores can germinate and produce a toxin that can make a person sick. The myth about not reheating rice, or not eating reheated rice, is most likely linked to illness that people have experienced from eating cooked rice that was improperly cooled; reheating would not destroy the toxin and so people got sick from ‘reheated’ rice.” Ingham, Barb. Safe handling of cooked rice. University of Wisconsin. Blog posting 5 April 2019. Retrieved April 2019 from https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/safepreserving/2019/04/05/safe-handling-of-cooked-rice/.
Rice is probably native to both China and India.
Literature & Lore
“Three pound of sugar, five pound of currants, rice… what will this sister of mine do with rice?” — Clown. The Winter’s Tale, Act IV, Scene 3. Shakespeare.
The Spanish word for rice, “arroz”, comes from the Arabic word for rice, “aruz.”
Types of rice
|↑1||Pazzaglia, Laura. Hip Pressure Cooking. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. 2014. Page 139.|
|↑2||Ingham, Barb. Safe handling of cooked rice. University of Wisconsin. Blog posting 5 April 2019. Retrieved April 2019 from https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/safepreserving/2019/04/05/safe-handling-of-cooked-rice/.|