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Katherine Caldwell Bayley

Katherine Caldwell Bayley

circa 1934 [3]

Katherine Caldwell Bayley (10 September 1889 to 1976) was a Canadian Home Economist in the first half of the 1900s. Together, with her husband Walter Stillman Bayley (1886 to 1959), they ran a Home Economics "consulting company" called "Ann Adam Homecrafters" out of their Toronto home at 42 Roselawn Avenue. [1] Walter looked after the business end of things. The couple had no children.

Katherine was the oldest of five sisters. Her early schooling was in England and in America. [2] In 1911, she graduated from the University of Toronto in domestic science and journalism.

She went on to become a well-known North American Home Economist. In 1934, she was called "America's foremost Cooking Authority." [3]

She also wrote as Miss Ann Adam for corporate promotions for companies like Standard Brands (Magic Baking Powder). Ann Adam was also the name she used in writing for the Toronto Globe and Mail (then called the Toronto Mail and Empire), and in the first half of the 1930s, the Winnipeg Free Press carried a food column by Ann Adam, which possibly was her, too.

Other works by her were published as Anna Lee Scott, the fictitious corporate food personality for Maple Leaf Milling company of Toronto, Canada. (Note though that while many of these early publications likely were by her, Maple Leaf later engaged other people to write as Anna Lee Scott.)

In 1931, the Bayley's hired a woman named Helen Gagen Magee, who would later be in charge of Toronto's Globe and Mail food pages. [4] Magee worked for them until 1942. They needed the help: the 1930s were busy years for the couple. They produced monthly a 12 to 14 page food supplement for the Canadian Home Journal (later part of Chatelaine magazine.) They also acted as the out-of-house food department for the "Toronto Mail and Empire" newspaper. The job included half-pages on food Monday through Thursday, a full page on Fridays, and another half-page on Saturday. Bayley did this under the name of "Ann Adam." (In later years, her food column for the Globe as "Ann Adam" was actually written by an employee of hers, Mary Adam. [1])

Advertisement in
The Lethbridge Herald.
Lethbridge, AB, Canada.
7 June 1932. P. 10.

At one point in the 1930s, the CFRB radio station (still extant) in Toronto carried her daily half-hour programme "The Ann Adam Cooking School of the Air."

The couple did the Home Economics promotional activities for the Maple Leaf Milling company, under the name "Anna Lee Scott." Maple Leaf was milling flour under contract for General Mills in the States, as they had no production facilities in Canada. The Bayleys and their team tested products and developed recipes around them, produced cookbooks and cooking series, and helped write marketing copy. (By 1957, the management of Home Economics activities at Maple Leaf seems to have been taken in house [5].) They also did out of house work for Borden's, Frigidaire, General Foods, J.M. Schneider, Ingersoll Cheese, Moffat, Neilson's, Northern Electric, Procter & Gamble, Standard Brands, etc. The work would even include producing food booths for companies at fairs such as the Canadian National Exhibition.

In the 1930s, for a colour shoot they did for one of their clients, their first colour shoot, her husband had to take the plates to Kodak in Rochester, NY, to get the plates processed. [4]

In 1934, Katherine did a "Complete Cookery Art Course" in 24 weekly lessons for newspapers. It ran in America, possibly in Canada. Some papers ran 12 installments, some ran the full 24. One amusing ad for her cooking course stated that no achievement of a woman is more important than being a good cook (click here to view) [7]. To read Bayley's introduction to her course, click here. [8]

"Lessons in Home Economics by Katherine Caldwell will be a feature of the market section of The Constitution-Tribune each week for the next thirteen weeks. The first lesson will appear in next Friday's market section. These lessons will deal with the fundamentals of every-day food, bringing forth the scientific facts, which, when understood, eliminate failures. Meal planning, entertaining; the place of vegetables in the diet, eggs and cheese, cake making, hot and cold breads, pastry at its best, meats,fowls, fish and other basic foods are included in the subject matter of the lessons. Not only the dishes of America, but of Germany, England and France will be discussed. And at the conclusion of the lessons examination papers will be provided to all ladies who want them. These examination papers will be graded and a grand prize of $10.00, a second prize of $5.00 and a third prize of $1.00 will be awarded for the best papers by The Constitution-Tribune. Also, diplomas will be awarded to all ladies making a passing grade. The first lesson appears in the market section Friday of this week. Succeeding lessons will appear each Friday thereafter." -- Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune. 18 April 1934. Page 1. Chillicothe, Missouri.

The money rewards for the course seem to have been rare, and dependent on the newspaper. Papers such as The Miami Daily News-Record and the Emporia Gazette of Emporia, Kansas offered just the diplomas alone.

Practical in nature, the entire course is comparable to that offered in domestic science colleges. At the conclusion of the 12 weeks' group of lessons, women readers of the News-Record will be given the opportunity to take an examination over the preceding instruction. Those women and girls who pass the examinations will be given diplomas. Miss Caldwell has made extensive trips abroad to prepare herself for the field in which she now excels. She is the author of a number of books which are used for study in many educational institutions. Her work is probably the most complete ever prepared in this phase of domestic science. The writer of these lessons has studied in several universities in North America. She specialized in domestic science and journalism at the University of Toronto." -- The Miami Daily News-Record. 22 April 1934. Miami, Oklahoma. Page 1.

Katherine followed up on the publicity by publishing three books: "Marketing and Meal Planning", "The Easy Way Cake Book", and "Planning the Party." [9] These were sold through the newspapers that had run her course, for an average of 25 cents for the three.

In 1935, she lent her name (as Bayley) to a promotion by Old Dutch Cleanser to offer customers pieces of the William A. Rogers Silverware pattern called "Croydon", for 3 Old Dutch Labels and 50 cents. "The attractive "Croydon" pattern was specially selected for smartness and style by Katherine Caldwell, nationally known home economist. Simply send us the windmill panels from 3 Old Dutch labels and 50c for each of the offers listed. Order one or as many as you like. This offer, good only in Canada, expires July 31st, 1936." [10]

In the 1936, the Bayleys ran the Jewel Shortening recipe contest for Swift Canada. They had to hire 15 people to help them. They had to sort recipe entries, then try all the promising ones. Prizes were awarded daily, so the pace was fierce. Top recipes got $400 prizes. "Four famous Canadian cooking authorities will pass on each recipe—make the final decision. They are: Miss Esther Thompson, Director, Women's Work Extension Service, Department of Agriculture, Government of Manitoba; Professor Mary Hiltz, Faculty of Agriculture and Home Economics, Manitoba University; Miss Gertrude Dutton, National Home Monthly; and Miss Katherine Caldwell, Canadian Home Journal." [6]

Her sister, Lois, began working for her in 1942.

Bayley was still running the Ann Adam Homecrafters company in 1965. [11]

Bayley died in 1976 and was buried at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto.

History Notes

Newspaper coverage for the 1934 newspaper cooking series.

-- The National Cooking School Series: Lesson 10.
St Petersburg, Florida: The Independent. Tuesday, 12 February 1935

The Independent, St Petersburg, Florida. Tuesday, 11 December 1934. page 6.

"The examination papers in The National Cooking School were graded this week and the following cash prizes awarded.... Diplomas will also be sent to the women in Chillicothe and vicinity, who followed the Cooking School lessons and who took the examinations at the close of the lessons. Questions for the examination were taken from the series of twelve lessons recently published in the Constitution-Tribune in the market section of the Friday's edition. The National Cooking School lessons were prepared by Mrs. Katherine Caldwell, a graduate of the University of Toronto. Checks and diplomas will be mailed the winners within the next few days." -- Chillicothe Win Cash Prizes. Cooking School Prizes Awarded. Mrs. Eva Ward of Chula, Miss Genevieve Hagaman, Route Five and Mrs. Charles Meador. Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune. Chillicothe, Missouri. 3 August 1934. Page 2.

Literature & Lore

"I’d rather publish a chemical formula that would blow up, than a recipe that doesn't work." [4]

"Katherine Caldwell is regarded as one of the world's leading authorities and experts in her line. She has written numerous books on marketing, meal planning, cooking and entertaining." -- The Port Arthur News. Port Arthur, Texas. 30 September 1934. Page 1.

"TORONTO, March 14.—(CP)— The shortcomings of Canadian restaurants—ranging from wilted lettuce to sand in the spinach—were criticized here last night by a panel of food experts. Delegates to the seventh annual convention of the Canadian Restaurant Association heard the experts complain chiefly about the apparent fear of making salads; 'stodgy, characterless' desserts; lack of variety to the bread; and a tendency to stick to overcooked cabbage and watery peas. Mrs. Katherine Caldwell Bayley, director of the Canadian Home Journal home bureau, and Ann Adam, Globe and Mail cooking expert, were all in favor of more interesting desserts. 'Have you ever thought of the tantalizing addition of fine-cut ginger to vanilla pudding?' asked Mrs. Bayley. 'Desserts can be a live issue if you appeal both to the dieters and the sweet-toothed who yearn for something outstanding at the end of a meal.' She suggested'"cool pineapple on ice,' and spoke of the 'sheer drama' of giant toasted pecans and almonds on whipped cream. What was really important was for restaurant owners to 'create word pictures on menus.' Tickle the tastebuds with titles like sherried ambrosia and, you are on the way to a profitable dessert order..." -- Stodgy Meals. The Lethbridge Herald. Lethbridge, Alberta. 14 March 1951. Page 1.

Bayley was on a panel for judges for a "Domestic Bakefast" held in Toronto on 14th January 1958, for a $20,000 prize. "Mrs. Katherine Caldwell Bayley, Home Bureau Director of the Canadian Home Journal..." -- Leader-Mail, Wednesday 1st January 1958. Granby, Quebec. Page 5.


[1] Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary landmarks: a bibliography of Canadian cookbooks, 1825-1949. Toronto: University of Toronto Press . Page 627.

[2] First in series of cooking lessons is published today. The Independent, St Petersburg, Florida. Tuesday, December 11 1934. page 6.

[3] Photo and quote from: Jefferson City Post Tribune. Jefferson City, Missouri, USA, Friday, 8 June 1934. Page 5.

[4] Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php

[5] "...from 1957 to 1964 Mary was the Director of the Home Service Department at Maple Leaf Mills..." Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Mary Adams. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php

[6] Winnipeg Free Press. 18 February 1936. page 9.

[7] Emporia Daily Gazette. Emporia, Kansas, USA. Wednesday, 6 June 1934. Page 8.

[8] Caldwell, Katherine. The National Cooking School. Andover, New York: Andover News. 7 September 1934. Page 3.

[9] Andover News, Andover, New York. Friday, 30 November 1934. Page 4.

[10] Winnipeg Free Press. 8 November 1935. Page 4.

[11] "Mary Adams began freelancing in 1965, working for the Ontario Hog Producers' Association, and the indomitable Katherine Caldwell Bayley's consulting company, Ann Adam Homecrafters..." Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Mary Adams. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php

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Oulton, Randal. "Katherine Caldwell Bayley." CooksInfo.com. Published 29 July 2010; revised 08 December 2010. Web. Accessed 03/18/2018. <http://www.cooksinfo.com/katherine-caldwell-bayley>.

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