Up to the 1600s, the European poor could only afford flour made from rye (many couldn’t even afford that.) As the price of wheat became more affordable, it became possible for them to enjoy a flour that had some wheat mixed into it — and thus méteil was created.
For the next 200 years, méteil constituted about 60% of the flour used in poorer areas in France. By the early 1900s, though, the use of méteil was minimal — it had been completely supplanted by all wheat flour.
Méteil was still mentioned in French bread laws up until 1963. Now it is used only in specialty breads.
100% rye flour is still popular in Germany.