A bread couche is a bed made of stiff fabric for shaped bread dough to rise in. It is used for bread that is baked free-standing, not in pans. It helps the dough keep its shape while proofing and rising.
Cheesecloth is a loosely-woven cotton cloth that is used to wrap cheese in. In the kitchen, it is used for straining and draining, and for making small spice bags.
Oshibori are the hot, damp cotton towels that are given to you before a meal on airlines, in Japanese restaurants, and in a few of the more expensive Chinese restaurants, etc. They are for washing your hands at the table.
A pastry cloth is a cloth on which you roll out dough for pastry. Its purpose is to minimize sticking, and allow you to therefore roll the dough thinner.
A pastry cloth pad is used to hold a pastry cloth in place on a worksurface to stop it from sliding as pressure is being applied to the dough on it.
A rolling pin cover is a long tube of stretchable cloth, like a sock open at both ends, made of cotton. You put it onto and over a rolling pin to cover the roller part completely.