Katherine Caldwell Bayley (10 September 1889 to 1976) was a famous North American home economist in the first half of the 1900s.
In 1934, she was called “America’s foremost Cooking Authority.” Photo and quote from: Jefferson City Post Tribune. Jefferson City, Missouri, USA, Friday, 8 June 1934. Page 5.
She also wrote as Miss Ann Adam for corporate promotions for companies like Standard Brands (Magic Baking Powder). Ann Adam was also the name she used in writing for the Toronto Globe and Mail (then called the Toronto Mail and Empire), and in the first half of the 1930s, the Winnipeg Free Press carried a food column by Ann Adam, which possibly was her, too.
Other works by her were published as Anna Lee Scott, the fictitious corporate food personality for Maple Leaf Milling company of Toronto, Canada. (Note though that while many of these early publications likely were by her, Maple Leaf later engaged other people to write as Anna Lee Scott.)
Katherine Bayley was born as Kathleen Mary Frances Caldwell on 10 September 1889. Her parents were Charles Caldwell and
Martha Jane Kyle. Ancestry.ca. Accessed August 2021 at https://www.ancestrylibrary.ca/discoveryui-content/view/3734190:7921
At some point, she switched to using Katherine or Kay as her first name.
Katherine was the oldest of five sisters. Her early schooling was in England and in America. First in series of cooking lessons is published today. The Independent, St Petersburg, Florida. Tuesday, December 11 1934. page 6.
In 1911, she graduated from the University of Toronto in domestic science and journalism. At university, she had been a member of the Alpha Gamma sorority.
Shortly after she graduated, her father died:
“Kay lost her father just after she graduated, and, as the eldest of a family of six girls, carried on as the man of the house until all were grown-up and could shoulder their own responsibilities.” Parker, Marie. Katherine Caldwell Bayley. Alpha Gamma, 1911. The Anchora of Delta Gamma. January 1932. Page 176.
Even as a young woman in the 1920s, Bayley was an ambitious force to be reckoned with, and a rising star in the field of home economics publishing:
“Seeing an outlet for her talents, Kay, who had always had a gift with her pen as well as in household organization, turned to journalism in this field. Canadian magazines were more or less in their infancy twenty years ago and Kay got in on the ground floor. She edited homecraft pages in several magazines, notably McLean’s, the Canadian Magazine, and The Western Home Monthly… She then organized and edited the household department of Everywoman’s World and eventually became editor-in-chief. This was at the time the largest woman’s publication in Toronto. Along with this, she also edited a smaller magazine called The Canadian Child. When Everywoman’s World was taken over by other interests, she joined the staff of the Canadian Home Journal, where she put in a homecraft department which has grown into the ‘Home Service Bureau’….” Parker, Marie. Katherine Caldwell Bayley. Alpha Gamma, 1911. The Anchora of Delta Gamma. January 1932. Page 176.
Together, with her husband Walter Stillman Bayley (1 Jan 1886 to 1959), they ran a Home Economics “consulting company” called “Ann Adam Homecrafters” out of their Toronto home at 48 Roselawn Avenue. Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary landmarks: a bibliography of Canadian cookbooks, 1825-1949. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Page 627. Note that Driver says they lived at 42 Roselawn, but voting records from 1935 to 1957 at ancestry.ca show them at 48 Roselawn. Walter looked after the business end of things.
The couple had no children.
The 1930s were busy years for Katherine and her husband Walter. They produced monthly a 12-to-14-page food supplement for the Canadian Home Journal (later part of Chatelaine magazine.) They also acted as the out-of-house food department for the “Toronto Mail and Empire” newspaper. The job included half-pages on food Monday through Thursday, a full page on Fridays, and another half-page on Saturday. Bayley did this under the name of “Ann Adam.” (In later years, her food column for the Globe as “Ann Adam” was actually written by an employee of hers, Mary Adam. Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary landmarks: a bibliography of Canadian cookbooks, 1825-1949. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Page 627. )
Already by 1931, they realized they needed permanent help and so hired a woman named Helen Gagen Magee, who would later be in charge of Toronto’s Globe and Mail food pages.  Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php Magee worked for them until 1942.
In the 1930s, for a colour shoot they did for one of their clients, their first colour shoot, Walter had to take the plates to Kodak in Rochester, NY, to get the plates processed. Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee.
The Ann Adam Cooking School of the Air
At one point in the 1930s, the CFRB radio station (still extant) in Toronto carried Bayley’s daily half-hour programme “The Ann Adam Cooking School of the Air.”
Maple Leaf / General Mills
The couple did the Home Economics promotional activities for the Maple Leaf Milling company, under the name “Anna Lee Scott.” Maple Leaf was milling flour under contract for General Mills in the States, as they had no production facilities in Canada. The Bayleys and their team tested products and developed recipes around them, produced cookbooks and cooking series, and helped write marketing copy. (By 1957, the management of Home Economics activities at Maple Leaf seems to have been taken in house. ”…from 1957 to 1964 Mary was the Director of the Home Service Department at Maple Leaf Mills…” Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Mary Adams. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php) They also did out of house work for Borden’s, Frigidaire, General Foods, J.M. Schneider, Ingersoll Cheese, Moffat, Neilson’s, Northern Electric, Procter & Gamble, Standard Brands, etc. The work would even include producing food booths for companies at fairs such as the Canadian National Exhibition.
Complete Cookery Art Course in newspapers
In 1932, Katherine possibly did a home study cooking course in Canada sponsored by the Maple Leaf Milling Company, using the persona of Ann Lee Scott. Note that other people may have assisted in publishing content in the name of that persona as well.
The course was in the form of a booklet, called “Maple Leaf Cooking School: A Complete Home Study Course for Beginners and Others in Twelve Easy Lessons”.
The three books were published under the name of Anna Lee Scott.
Further reading: Maple Leaf Cooking School (1932)
In 1934, the course was picked up for the United States under the moniker of “Complete Cookery Art Course” using her own actual name. There were 24 weekly lessons, and it was delivered weekly installments in newspapers. Some papers ran only 12 installments; some ran the full 24.
One amusing ad for her cooking course stated that no achievement of a woman is more important than being a good cook (click here to view) Emporia Daily Gazette. Emporia, Kansas, USA. Wednesday, 6 June 1934. Page 8.. To read Bayley’s introduction to her course, click here. Caldwell, Katherine. The National Cooking School. Andover, New York: Andover News. 7 September 1934. Page 3.
Newspapers in some cities advertised cash incentives for completing the course:
“Lessons in Home Economics by Katherine Caldwell will be a feature of the market section of The Constitution-Tribune each week for the next thirteen weeks. The first lesson will appear in next Friday’s market section. These lessons will deal with the fundamentals of every-day food, bringing forth the scientific facts, which, when understood, eliminate failures. Meal planning, entertaining; the place of vegetables in the diet, eggs and cheese, cake making, hot and cold breads, pastry at its best, meats, fowls, fish and other basic foods are included in the subject matter of the lessons. Not only the dishes of America, but of Germany, England and France will be discussed. And at the conclusion of the lessons examination papers will be provided to all ladies who want them. These examination papers will be graded and a grand prize of $10.00, a second prize of $5.00 and a third prize of $1.00 will be awarded for the best papers by The Constitution-Tribune. Also, diplomas will be awarded to all ladies making a passing grade. The first lesson appears in the market section Friday of this week. Succeeding lessons will appear each Friday thereafter.” — Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune. 18 April 1934. Page 1. Chillicothe, Missouri.
The Chillicothe diplomas and cash awards were sent out in August of that year:
“The examination papers in The National Cooking School were graded this week and the following cash prizes awarded…. Diplomas will also be sent to the women in Chillicothe and vicinity, who followed the Cooking School lessons and who took the examinations at the close of the lessons. Questions for the examination were taken from the series of twelve lessons recently published in the Constitution-Tribune in the market section of the Friday’s edition. The National Cooking School lessons were prepared by Mrs. Katherine Caldwell, a graduate of the University of Toronto. Checks and diplomas will be mailed the winners within the next few days.” — Chillicothe Win Cash Prizes. Cooking School Prizes Awarded. Mrs. Eva Ward of Chula, Miss Genevieve Hagaman, Route Five and Mrs. Charles Meador. Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune. Chillicothe, Missouri. 3 August 1934. Page 2.
The monetary rewards for the course seem to have been rare, and dependent on the newspaper. Papers such as The Miami Daily News-Record and the Emporia Gazette of Emporia, Kansas offered just the diplomas alone:
Practical in nature, the entire course is comparable to that offered in domestic science colleges. At the conclusion of the 12 weeks’ group of lessons, women readers of the News-Record will be given the opportunity to take an examination over the preceding instruction. Those women and girls who pass the examinations will be given diplomas. Miss Caldwell has made extensive trips abroad to prepare herself for the field in which she now excels. She is the author of a number of books which are used for study in many educational institutions. Her work is probably the most complete ever prepared in this phase of domestic science. The writer of these lessons has studied in several universities in North America. She specialized in domestic science and journalism at the University of Toronto.” — The Miami Daily News-Record. 22 April 1934. Miami, Oklahoma. Page 1.
Katherine followed up on the publicity of the course by publishing three books: “Marketing and Meal Planning”, “The Easy Way Cake Book”, and “Planning the Party.” Andover News, Andover, New York. Friday, 30 November 1934. Page 4. These were sold through the newspapers that had run her course, for an average of 25 cents for the three. While in Canada they were ascribed to the Anna Lee Scott persona, in the U.S. they were published under Katherine’s own name.
But to be clear, when it comes to Anna Lee Scott and Ann Adam, we’ll only know the talent pool at the time that could have been involved in the authorship; we’ll never know the exact author and instead several people may have had a hand at any one time. And, even when Katharine gets directly credited in her own right for something, we have to remember she had her own personal assistant and consultants employed through her own pesonal company “Ann Adam Homecrafters” who may have ghost-written something for her to publish under her own name.
The newspaper format version of the course ran in Canada as well at the same time as it did in the States, though branded as Canadian:
“In the mid-1930s the Toronto Evening Telegram published a column by Anna Lee Scott called ‘The Canadian Cooking School: A Complete Cookery Arts Course in 12 Lessons.” Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary Landmarks: A Bibliography of Canadian Cookbooks, 1925 – 1949. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. 2008. Google books
Promotions for other companies
In 1935, she lent her name as herself to a promotion by Old Dutch Cleanser to offer customers pieces of the William A. Rogers Silverware pattern called “Croydon”, for 3 Old Dutch Labels and 50 cents:
“The attractive “Croydon” pattern was specially selected for smartness and style by Katherine Caldwell, nationally known home economist. Simply send us the windmill panels from 3 Old Dutch labels and 50c for each of the offers listed. Order one or as many as you like. This offer, good only in Canada, expires July 31st, 1936.” Winnipeg Free Press. 8 November 1935. Page 4.
In the 1936, the Bayleys ran the Jewel Shortening recipe contest for Swift Canada. They had to hire 15 people to help them. They had to sort recipe entries, then try all the promising ones. Prizes were awarded daily, so the pace was fierce. Top recipes got $400 prizes:
“Four famous Canadian cooking authorities will pass on each recipe—make the final decision. They are: Miss Esther Thompson, Director, Women’s Work Extension Service, Department of Agriculture, Government of Manitoba; Professor Mary Hiltz, Faculty of Agriculture and Home Economics, Manitoba University; Miss Gertrude Dutton, National Home Monthly; and Miss Katherine Caldwell, Canadian Home Journal.” Winnipeg Free Press. 18 February 1936. Page 9.
The wartime years
During the years of the Second World War, she did some writing on adapting cooking for war-time rationing cooking, but surprisingly, not a great deal it seems.
Her sister, Lois, began working for her in 1942 when Helen Gagen Magee left.
She developed a method for making a carrier for slices of pie in war-time lunches in the days before Tupperwaree®.
Here is a meat-reduction recipe attributed to Ann Adam:
In February 1955, she was included in a group of “celebrities” on a tour of the citrus industry in Florida sponsored by the Florida Citrus Commission. Also in the group was the famous Gourmet Magazine food writer Clementine Paddleford. Editors plan Mt. Dora Stop. Orlando, Florida: The Orlando Sentinel. Sunday, 27 February 1955. Page [unclear in archives], col. 4.
Bayley was on a panel for judges for a “Domestic Bakefast” held in Toronto on 14th January 1958, for prizes totalling $20,000:
“Mrs. Katherine Caldwell Bayley, Home Bureau Director of the Canadian Home Journal…” — Leader-Mail, Wednesday 1st January 1958. Granby, Quebec. Page 5.
The 1963 and 1968 Canadian voters list shows her living at 142 Rosewell Avenue, Toronto.
Bayley was still running the Ann Adam Homecrafters company in 1965. A Mary Adams did work for her in 1965, when Bayley was referred to as “indomitable”:
“Mary Adams began freelancing in 1965, working for the Ontario Hog Producers’ Association, and the indomitable Katherine Caldwell Bayley’s consulting company, Ann Adam Homecrafters…” Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Mary Adams. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php
Bayley died in 1976 and was buried at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto.
Literature & Lore
“I’d rather publish a chemical formula that would blow up, than a recipe that doesn’t work.” — Katherine Caldwell Bayley. Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee.
“Katherine Caldwell is regarded as one of the world’s leading authorities and experts in her line. She has written numerous books on marketing, meal planning, cooking and entertaining.” — The Port Arthur News. Port Arthur, Texas. 30 September 1934. Page 1.
“TORONTO, March 14.—(CP)— The shortcomings of Canadian restaurants—ranging from wilted lettuce to sand in the spinach—were criticized here last night by a panel of food experts. Delegates to the seventh annual convention of the Canadian Restaurant Association heard the experts complain chiefly about the apparent fear of making salads; ‘stodgy, characterless’ desserts; lack of variety to the bread; and a tendency to stick to overcooked cabbage and watery peas. Mrs. Katherine Caldwell Bayley, director of the Canadian Home Journal home bureau, and Ann Adam, Globe and Mail cooking expert, were all in favor of more interesting desserts. ‘Have you ever thought of the tantalizing addition of fine-cut ginger to vanilla pudding?’ asked Mrs. Bayley. ‘Desserts can be a live issue if you appeal both to the dieters and the sweet-toothed who yearn for something outstanding at the end of a meal.’ She suggested ‘cool pineapple on ice,’ and spoke of the ‘sheer drama’ of giant toasted pecans and almonds on whipped cream. What was really important was for restaurant owners to ‘create word pictures on menus.’ Tickle the tastebuds with titles like sherried ambrosia and, you are on the way to a profitable dessert order…” — Stodgy Meals. The Lethbridge Herald. Lethbridge, Alberta. 14 March 1951. Page 1.
See entry on Ann Adam in: Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary Landmarks: A Bibliography of Canadian Cookbooks, 1925 – 1949. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. 2008. Pp 789 – 790. (Available on JSTOR).
|↑1||Photo and quote from: Jefferson City Post Tribune. Jefferson City, Missouri, USA, Friday, 8 June 1934. Page 5.|
|↑2||Ancestry.ca. Accessed August 2021 at https://www.ancestrylibrary.ca/discoveryui-content/view/3734190:7921|
|↑3||First in series of cooking lessons is published today. The Independent, St Petersburg, Florida. Tuesday, December 11 1934. page 6.|
|↑4||Parker, Marie. Katherine Caldwell Bayley. Alpha Gamma, 1911. The Anchora of Delta Gamma. January 1932. Page 176.|
|↑5||Parker, Marie. Katherine Caldwell Bayley. Alpha Gamma, 1911. The Anchora of Delta Gamma. January 1932. Page 176.|
|↑6||Accessed August 2021 at https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/marriage-records/kathleen-caldwell-and-walter-bayley.html|
|↑7||Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary landmarks: a bibliography of Canadian cookbooks, 1825-1949. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Page 627. Note that Driver says they lived at 42 Roselawn, but voting records from 1935 to 1957 at ancestry.ca show them at 48 Roselawn.|
|↑8||Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary landmarks: a bibliography of Canadian cookbooks, 1825-1949. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Page 627.|
|↑9||Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php|
|↑10||Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee.|
|↑11||”…from 1957 to 1964 Mary was the Director of the Home Service Department at Maple Leaf Mills…” Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Mary Adams. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php|
|↑12||Emporia Daily Gazette. Emporia, Kansas, USA. Wednesday, 6 June 1934. Page 8.|
|↑13||Caldwell, Katherine. The National Cooking School. Andover, New York: Andover News. 7 September 1934. Page 3.|
|↑14||Andover News, Andover, New York. Friday, 30 November 1934. Page 4.|
|↑15||Driver, Elizabeth. Culinary Landmarks: A Bibliography of Canadian Cookbooks, 1925 – 1949. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. 2008. Google books|
|↑16||Winnipeg Free Press. 8 November 1935. Page 4.|
|↑17||Winnipeg Free Press. 18 February 1936. Page 9.|
|↑18||Editors plan Mt. Dora Stop. Orlando, Florida: The Orlando Sentinel. Sunday, 27 February 1955. Page [unclear in archives], col. 4.|
|↑19||Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Mary Adams. Toronto, Ontario. Ontario Home Economists in Business. July 2009. Retrieved July 2010 from http://www.oheib.org/hall_of_fame/gagen.php|
|↑20||Hatton, Helen. Hall of Fame: Helen Gagen Magee.|