© Denzil Green
Measuring spoons are special, standardized spoons used to measure very small quantities of ingredients by volume quickly and accurately.
Even in metric countries, many small quantities of ingredients are measured with measuring spoons rather than by weight, because it's too much bother to weigh them out. In metric countries, they are even referred to as teaspoons, rather than by referring to their metric volume in millilitres. A French recipe wouldn't call for 15 ml of dried sage; it would call for "une cuillère" (a teaspoon.)
That being said, most Europeans "don't sweat the small stuff" when it comes to measuring spoons. They just whip a spoon out of the drawer. If pulling any old spoon out of the drawer seems shocking, bear in mind that there are no official standards-checkers for North American measuring spoons: it's not uncommon that one set can vary from another by as much as 25%.
Teaspoons and tablespoons are unofficial measurements. They're not legally defined because they aren't used in commerce or in science, so they never seemed to merit the attention of government. In North America, compliance in measurement accuracy for any measuring utensils isn't enforced. For the purpose of metric conversion in nutrition labelling, though, U.S. federal law (21 CFR 101.9(b)(5)(viii))) says that a tablespoon is 15 ml (by convention, for kitchen use, it's thought of as 1/2 oz, though it isn't quite exactly), and that a teaspoon is 5 ml.
Measuring spoons can be made of stainless steel, plastic, wood, copper, ceramic, even Jadeite glass. If you get metal ones, make sure they are dishwasher safe. Stainless steel ones can bend if you're using them to dig out something like hardened brown sugar -- just gently bend them back into shape as much as you can. Many plastic ones in North America meet their end after being carried out of the cutlery basket in the dishwasher by a jet of water, and landing on the heating coils that North American dishwashers have at the bottom, where they get melted into something unrecognizable.
Metal and plastic ones usually have holes in the end of the handles, and are joined together by a ring passing through the holes. The rings keep the sets together; the spoons in the set nestle together (in theory) for storage into each other's bowls. Some plastic ones detach easily from their rings for separate use, then snap back on for storage (though eventually, of course, one snap gets forgotten, then another, and eventually you have just this ring floating by itself about your drawer.) Thus starts the great debate everyone has with themselves: do I leave my set of Measuring Spoons all together, so that they're easier to find and one of them doesn't go astray, or do I take them apart, so that when one is dirty, only one has to be washed, and so that when I'm using them, I'm not trying to keep the dirty one that has butter on it from flopping into the baking powder that I'm measuring with another of them? Some people take them all apart, and solve the "storing together" problem by dedicating a slot in their drawer divider to them.
Most measuring spoons have rounded bottoms. Some have bent handles allowing them to rest on the counter without tipping out the contents of their measuring bowls; some allow the resting to happen by dint of flat-bottomed bowls.
Adjustable Measuring Spoon
© Denzil Green
There is no industry standard anywhere of what gets included in a set of measuring spoons -- it will vary by manufacturer. Standard sizes are 1/8 teaspoon, 1/4 teaspoon, 1/2 teaspoon, 1 teaspoon and 1 tablespoon. Cheaper sets will omit the 1/8 teaspoon. Odd-size (but still useful) ones are 1/2 tablespoon, 2 teaspoons, 1 1/2 tablespoons and 2 tablespoons. Some manufacturers make only the standard-sized sets, some sell the standard and odd-size sets separately, some include some or all of the odd-sized ones in their standard sets. Occasionally you'll see 1/16 teaspoon (pinch), 1/3 teaspoon, 2/3 teaspoon , 1 1/2 teaspoon sizes and 1/2 tablespoon. It is very hard to find 1/3 teaspoon measures, even though there are thousands of recipes calling for 1/3 teaspoon of things. When confronted with this, it's best to use a heaping 1/4 teaspoon.
Most people recommend having two sets of measuring spoons. If the 1 teaspoon from one set has just had butter on it, you don't have to stop everything to wash it to measure a 1 teaspoon of sugar.
International UsageMetric evangelists in North America seem determined to avoid using the words "teaspoon" or "tablespoon." In saying instead "5 ml" or "15 ml", they give the impression that that is how the rest of the metric world does it. The truth is that teaspoons and teaspoons remain a fundamental kitchen measurement in countries where the metric system has been in place for 200 years and upwards, and that unofficially (because bureaucrats prefer to pretend they don't exist) they are the same measurement in dozens of countries. There is only one odd man out -- Australia.
Teaspoon: cuillère à café, 5 ml
Tablespoon: cuillère à soupe, 15 ml
Dutch recipes still use teaspoons, tablespoons and sometimes cups.
Teaspoon: KL Short for, "koffie lepel", 5 ml
Tablespoon: EL. Short for "eet-lepel" 15 ml (in Old Dutch, a "loot" was close to a tablespoon, being 14 g)
Teaspoon: May be abbreviated TL or t or ts. Short for "Teelöffel." 5 ml
Tablespoon: May be abbreviated EL or tb. Short for "Esslöffel." 15 ml
Teaspoon: Cucharadita (cdta), 5 ml
Tablespoon: Cucharada (cda), 15 ml
Teaspoon: 5 ml
Tablespoon: 20 ml
When Australia went metric, they decided to use a larger tablespoon, so Australian metric tablespoons are larger than the rest of the world. There are now 4 teaspoons in an Australian metric teaspoon, putting them out of whack with the rest of the English-speaking world: New Zealand, Canada, America, South Africa, the UK, Ireland, etc, all stuck to 3 teaspoons / 15 ml. Many European countries did as well.
Teaspoon: 5 ml
Tablespoon: 15 ml
New Zealand did not officially follow Australia in switching to a 20 ml tablespoon. Owing to the heavy influence of Australian food media, however, even some government food authorities in New Zealand seem to think that they did.
It's always a problem trying to find a measuring spoon that will fit into a spice jar. You have to measure the spices the same way as you do liquid, by pouring them in. Or, you can try one of the smaller measuring spoons, such as 1/8 of a teaspoon, to see if it will fit in so you can scoop spice out. Mind you, if your 1 teaspoon is attached by a ring to the spoon you are using as a scoop, it's going to be tricky transferring the scooped contents into it. Some measuring spoons are specially designed to fit into spice bottles, with long handles and long narrow rectangular or oval bowls.
To measure liquid, you hold the measuring spoon level in the air, and carefully trickle the liquid in until it comes up to the top of the rim of the bowl.
When a recipe calls for a tablespoon of melted butter, unless the recipe specifies to melt the butter first and then measure it, always assume it means that you are to measure the butter in its unmelted state. In measuring butter, ideally you start off with somewhat soft butter. Just scoop some up on a knife, and press it into the tablespoon. If it's hard butter, you may need to do it in small pieces, and press it in.
Measuring spoon measurements are always assumed to be level unless stated otherwise.
In spite of the nannying-zealotry some food writers will use in telling you that only precision-calibrated measuring spoons will do, very experienced cooks can use a coffee spoon out of a drawer and eyeball how close a quantity of baking soda in it is to an official teaspoonful. But even they would have trouble eye-balling when it comes to 1/4 and 1/8th a teaspoon.
Strictly speaking, the only way to truly measure a tablespoon of table salt (which weighs 19 g) is to haul out weigh scales (20 g is close home for the home kitchen.)
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = 15 ml
4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup = 60 ml
1 dessertspoon = 2 teaspoons
1 saltspoon = 1/4 teaspoon
1 barspoon = 1/2 teaspoon
8 tablespoons should equal half a cup -- if they don't, either your tablespoon is off, or your cup is.
Measuring ToolsCuillerée; Jiggers; Measuring Cups; Measuring Spoons; Pony; Pugnetto; Scales
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